Dyslexia: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and General information in Urdu

Dyslexia is a common learning ailment that in particular affects the way people read and spell words.

Dyslexia aam taur par bachon main pai janay wali bemari hai, is ka taluq Zahan say aur wirasat say hai. Is zahni bemari ko munasib ilaj aur nafsiati taleem o tarbiat say theek kia ja sakta hai.

Signs and symptoms

Dyslexia is known as a spectrum disorder, with symptoms ranging from mild to severe. People having dyslexia problem have particular difficulty with:

Phonological awareness:  Phonological awareness is  a key skill in early reading and spelling development. It is the ability to identify how words are composed of smaller units of sound, known as phonemes. Changes in the sounds that form words can lead to changes in their meaning.

For instance, a child with a good level of phonological awareness would understand that if you change the letter "p" in the word "pat" to "s", the word will become "sat".


dyslexia child

Verbal memory: Verbal memory is the skill to remember a sequence of verbal information for a short period of time. For instance, the capability to remember a short list such as "red, blue, green", or a set of simple instructions, such as "Put on your gloves and your cap, find the keys of the car and then go to the park."

Rapid serial naming: This is the ability to name a series of colours, objects or numbers as fast as possible.

Verbal processing speed: Verbal processing speed is the time taken for processing and recognizing familiar verbal information, such as letters and digits.

For instance, someone with an ideal verbal processing speed has the skill to quickly write down unfamiliar words when they are spelled out, or write down telephone numbers they are told.


dyslexia graphic

Dyslexia and intelligence:

Dyslexia generally can only affect some skills and abilities, and is not linked to a person's general level of intelligence. Children of all mental abilities, from low to high intelligence, can be affected by dyslexia. In the same manner,  a child with dyslexia has the problem with reading and spelling is not determined by their intelligence, but by how severe their dyslexia is. Children with normal or average intelligence and mild dyslexia are likely to be more skilled at reading and writing than children with high intelligence and more severe dyslexia.

How common is dyslexia?

Dyslexia affects people of all social or ethnic backgrounds; however, a person’s mother language can play an important role in the condition. For example, dyslexia is less challenging in languages with consistent rules around pronunciation, such as Italian and Spanish.

Languages for example English, where there is often no visible connection between the written form and sound (for example, words such as "cough"and "dough"), can be more problematic for a person with dyslexia.


dyslexic mind

What causes dyslexia?

The pinpoint cause of dyslexia is unknown, but it's seen more commonly in families. Six genes have been recognized that may be behind the condition, four of which affect the way the brain is formed during early life. Special brain scans (functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans) also show there is decreased function of one area towards the back of the brain, called the occipito-temporal cortex.

Identifying dyslexia

It can be difficult to recognize dyslexia in young children as the signs are not always clear. If you think your child has dyslexia, the first step is to speak to their teacher or the school’s special needs care taker. Bringing out your child’s strengths (such as picture puzzles or maths) as well as their difficulties can be helpful.

If your child does not make any progress when offered the support, the school may request a more in-depth assessment from either a specialist teacher or educational psychologist. It is also a good idea to request private assessments, either directly from an educational psychologist or through voluntary organisations.


cause of dyslexia

Treating dyslexia:

Although dyslexia is a lifelong issue, a range of educational programmes and interventions are very much effective in improving reading and writing skills in many children with the condition. Research shows that the earlier appropriate interventions are adopted, the better it would be.

Most children give a positive response to educational interventions and  make progress with reading and writing, although some children continue to find reading and writing difficult and will require more intensive support and long-term  help to learn strategies for managing their difficulties.



Children with dyslexia go on facing challenges on a day-to-day basis, but even children who have severe dyslexia can go on to lead full and productive lives.

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