Infertility is the inability of a person to contribute to Pregnancy. Either it can be a man or a woman. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term. Sometimes there are temporary medical reasons which can be removed easily after the medical treatment.
Women who are fertile experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation, and they are naturally infertile during the rest of the menstrual cycle.
Primary vs. secondary infertility
Couples with primary infertility have never been able to conceive, while, on the other hand, secondary infertility is difficulty conceiving after already having conceived (and either carried the pregnancy to term or had a miscarriage).
In any fertility work-up, both male and female partners are tested if pregnancy is not occurring after a year of regular sexual intercourse. It should be done earlier if a woman is over age 35 or if either partner has known risk factors for infertility. A work-up can not only uncover the causes
of infertility but also detect other potentially serious medical problems as
well, including genetic mutations, cancer, or diabetes.
Post-Ejaculatory Urine Sample
A urine sample to detect sperm after ejaculation may rule out or indicate retrograde ejaculation. It also may be used to test for infections.
If a man is under doubt of being infertile he should go for Semen Analysis or Semen Test. Semen Collection should be done in a sterile glass jar and it should be delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible otherwise the sperms may die or lose motility due to much exposure to heat and other environmental variants.
A semen analysis will provide information on:
Amount of semen produced (volume)
Number of sperm per milliliter of semen (concentration)
Total number of sperm in the sample (count)
Percentage of moving sperm (motility)
Shape of sperm (morphology)
Blood tests are used for measuring several factors that might affect fertility:
Blood tests for testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels.
Infections: Blood tests can also determine the presence of any infections.
Ultrasound imaging may be used to accurately determine the size of the testes or to detect cysts, tumors, abnormal blood flow, or varicoceles
Genetic testing can be done to test genetic disorders.
The following is the major cause of infertility that may only be found in females.
Immaturity of Ovaries and inability to release eggs.
In this case synthetic FSH by injection or Clomid (Clomiphene citrate) via a pill can be given to stimulate follicles to mature in the ovaries.
Other reasons include:
previous tubal ligation
In Pakistan there are lot many hospitals, clinics and fertility centers that are working for the treatment of infertility but one must be very careful while selecting an institution or physician to get him or her treated.
Medical treatment of infertility generally involves the use of fertility medication, medical device, surgery, or a combination of the following. If the sperm are of good quality and the mechanics of the woman's reproductive structures are good (patent fallopian tubes, no adhesions or scarring), physicians may start by prescribing a course of ovarian stimulating medication. The physician may also suggest using a conception cap cervicalcap, which the patient uses at home by placing the sperm inside the cap and putting the conception device on the cervix, or intrauterine insemination (IUI), in which the doctor introduces sperm into the uterus during ovulation, via a catheter. In these methods, fertilization occurs inside the body.
If conservative medical treatments fail to achieve a full term pregnancy, the physician may suggest the patient undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF and related techniques (ICSI, ZIFT, GIFT) are called assisted reproductive technology (ART) techniques.
ART techniques generally start with stimulating the ovaries to increase egg production. After stimulation, the physician surgically extracts one or more eggs from the ovary, and unites them with sperm in a laboratory setting, with the intent of producing one or more embryos. Fertilization takes place outside the body, and the fertilized egg is reinserted into the woman's reproductive tract, in a procedure called embryo transfer.
Other medical techniques are e.g. tuboplasty, assisted hatching, and Preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
Alternative Treatment like Homoeopathy, Acupuncture, Unani Medicines can also sometimes do wonders and one should not overlook them or ignore them.
Please find the following resources for treatment in Pakistan: